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Modified: Wed 14/9/2011 10:44 PM

Lecture 1 teaching of grammar in Esl

Defining grammar
Broad definition: layman's : grammar can be described as a set of rules that govern language.
David crystal: grammar is the way we make sentences.

Definition1 : the systematic study and description of a language, a group of languages or language in general in terms of either syntax and morphology alone or these together with aspects of phonology, orthography , semantics

Def2. : a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and morphology of a standard language, usually intended as an aid to the learning and teaching of that language.

Def3: a term for the syntactic and morphological system which every unimpaired person acquires from infancy when learning a language: a native speaker's grammar.

Relevance of definition
1. Syntax and morphology
- grammar is commonly associated with syntax and to lesser extent morphology.

Morphology is the way in which components of words are combined into words.
It deals with the morpheme, the smallest unit that carries meaning.
Eg. -s inflection used to denote plurality is a morpheme.
Alphabet- morpheme- bound- affixation- prefix & suffix
- free - root words
Eg the cat s will catch the rat = 7 morpheme =6 free + 1 bound
Eg let manliness come through wisdom

Syntax : the way words combine into such units as phrase, clause and sentence.
Concerned with the rules that govern the use of morphemes in a sentence
Eg relationship between adjectives, nouns and determiners
Syntax would be concerned with the rules that determine the use of these determiners, adjectives and nouns. It rarely goes beyond sentence structure

Language(grammar) - morpheme- words- phrases- clauses- sentences- paragraph -text-paper publication

Tutorial task 1 : what should grammar cover

Descriptive vs prescriptive
Application vs knowledge
Usage vs use
Performance vs competence
Applied linguistics vs linguistics

Teachers should be aware of syntax , morphology and the rules in it.

Tutorial task 2 : list down as many as you can exception to the rules in English grammar.

Sensitive to the way of presenting this system to learners

Teachers should derive a pedagogical grammar that can be understood and applied by 2nd language learners from the reference grammar that describes the rules.

Pedagogy = art of teaching

Prescriptive vs descriptive
P. Grammar is evaluative and distinguishes between good grammar or correct usage of the language
Bad grammar = incorrect usage of the language
D. Grammar attempts to present an accurate description of the rules for actual usage.

Split infinitive : to boldly go where no man has gone before (descriptive)
To go boldly where no man has gone before (prescriptive)

Tutorial 3 : find similarities and differences of the ten varieties of grammar. Make a table. Present on Friday. In groups.

Find article. Why bad English. In the star by muhyidin yasin.

Natural grammar
Issue of a native speaker grammar implies an implicit knowledge of the rules of language on the part of the native speaker.
Natural grammar = mental grammar is a result of 1st language acquisition and the acquisition of either prescriptive or descriptive grammar is secondary.
Many native speakers can't explain the grammar rules of their language.

Grammar and ldv
Grammar is unlike skills. It is a part of each reading, writing, listening and speaking.
One may know grammar but not good in each of the skills.

How do innate language abilities affect the way instruction should be presented?
Can acquisition rate be influenced by different forms of language input or environment?


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PostSubject: Lecture 2   Tue Sep 20, 2011 4:12 pm

Modified: Wed 14/9/2011 5:06 PM

Lecture 2
Teachers and the nature of grammar

Pedagogical grammar
- many grammatical items to teach
- how should the teacher teach?
- 1st step is to have an approach towards the teaching and learning of grammar
- pedagogical grammar

Concerns of pedagogical grammar
- rules
- purposes
- what happens in language use
- teachable
- teaching them have any effects
- teaching methods

Approach to looking at grammar
- language user's intuitive awareness of what is or is not grammatical
- learn best when one is actively engaged in analyzing the grammar
- emphasize the function of words, phrases and clauses. Meaning and position in a sentence
- language is dynamic
- language is situation specific

1. Intuitive awareness
- use if authentic examples of language use
- text not in isolated sentences
- interaction not just monologue or drills
- language is a tool. Not right not wrong but effective
- 1st language influences the acquisition of the 2nd language

2. Analyzing grammar
- want students to be engaged
- want students to have fun and enjoy themselves
- want students to be reflective

The four tests
1. Substitution - taking out one part of the structure and replace with another
2. Deletion - remove some part while the structure remains intact
3. Insertion - add extra parts to structure
4. Transposition - exchanging some part of the structure

3. Function or role; beyond form meaning and position
- grammatical description based on form
- eg adverb ends in ly
- word class of the word .....eg light
- using the 4 test to help identify the word class

- grammatical explanations based on meaning
- verb is a doing/ action word
- adjective is a describing word

- grammatical explanation based on position or collocation
- determiner appear before a noun
- most adjectives appear before a noun

4. Language is dynamic
- changes including grammar
- loan words
- innovation

5. Language is situation specific
- language variation
- attitudes to language variation
- standard English vs slang or colloquial
- variation in degrees of formality

Factors that can cause variation in language formality

Genre - the text type including forms of spoken as well as written language
- spoken vs written
Can include slang, informal, lots of grammatical mistakes, short, simple, feeler, interjections

formal , full sentence, better structure, can be edited

Purpose : what is the writer/ speaker trying to achieve
- writing to inform/ persuade
Audience : intended listener / reader
- public speaking, audience in a group with shared interest


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PostSubject: Lecture 3   Tue Sep 20, 2011 4:13 pm

Lecture 3 grammar

The building blocks of language


Levels of structure

Word formation
-what is a morpheme? The smallest meaningful unit in a language
-morphology: the study of morpheme
-metamorphosis : morphe; form; meta; after/beyond
-a morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning
-replaceable : how many morphemes?
3morpheme re place able
- why not letters or phonemes; words or syllables as the smallest unit of meaning? 

Types of morphemes
- traditionally : root or stem
- prefixes, suffixes and infixes (all-affixes)
-eg. Undo; magnetize ; abso-bloody-lutely
- what is the stem/root affixes ?
- free and bound morphemes

Word formation (neologism-newly created word)

1. Inflection
-suffixes marking grammatical forms such as plural and verb tenses
- s marks plural form (eg tables)
- s also marks 3rd person of verbs (eg jumps)
- ing marks progressive form (eg eating)
- ess sometimes mark female gender (eg actress)

2. Derivation
- uses addition of affixes to form new words and meanings
-clean-able ;anti-static
- often indicates a change in word class
- happy (adj) ; happiness (n)
-longest word in English
- anti-disestablishmentarianism 
-unsung; uncouth; impeccable; unrequited
-an unsung hero:  a sung hero?

Key affixes ( Brown 1971)
-scrib- to write
-spec - to look at
-tend -to stretch
-Corp - body
- ject - to throw
-tract -to drag
-mal - bad
-Ben- good

3. Compounding
-joining 2 words together (2 free morphemes)
- roadrage ; road + rage
-airport ; air + port
-3 words/ free morphemes

4. Blending ( portmanteau)
- tends to appear in playful use of language
- motel ; motor + hotel
- chortle ; chuckle + snort
- Chunnel - channel + tunnel
- bash ; smog; brash; humongous

Jabberwocky by Lewis carroll

5. Abbreviation (clipping)
- often the abbreviation ( or clipping) is used as standard and the original form is lost
- fridge : refrigerator
- bus: omnibus
- pram: perambulator
- some words are combination of abbreviation and derivation/ compounding 
-high-tech, sitcom 

6. Acronym
- LASER -light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation 
-ASAP - as soon as possible
- BIOS - basic input and output system
- IMHO - in my humble opinion
- BIONIC - biology and electronic

7. Onomatopoeia
- words that are invented with the sound of the word resembling it's meaning
- clatter, zip, gurgle, swish

Summary : key words

- morpheme, free and bound morphemes, stem, root, affixes, suffixes, prefixes, infixes, neologism, inflection, derivation,  compounding, blending, abbreviation, acronym & onomatopoeia. 

Formation of new words
New words
- with affixes - affixes ; reduplication
- no affixes - conversion/ zero derivation (eg. Release as verb/noun; please release me. His release is imminent); stress shift ( subject ; sub-n ject-v)  ; ablaut (involve replacing a vowel with another vowel to form words, eg. Sell-v sale-ablaut, abide-v abode-ablaut, sing-v song-ablaut)

Part 2 by Mdm Norhazian 

Words; parts of speech

Parts is speech are essential building blocks of the English language. 
Noun pronoun adjective verb adverb preposition conjunction interjection. 

Words - introduction and closed class word

A word, in a word, is complicated
(Steven pinker, 1994)

Word classes 

Content/ open class
- noun
- verb 
- adjective
- adverb

Grammatical/ closed class
- pronoun
- preposition
- determiner
- conjunction 

Difference between for content and grammatical classes
- meaning
- size and capacity for change
- think of words as instruments chars riser by their use 

Grammatical word class 

English conjunctions
- a conjunction is a word that functions as a connector between other words, phrases, clauses or sentences. 

Coordinating conjunction
- and but so or
- link parts to express addition, opposition, consequences or alternatives
- generally, the linked parts are equal in terms of structure/ form
- student should be made to recognize that repeated use of CC in a sentence is a marker of a simple style
- 1 aim of writing: develop a repertoire to form a variety of sentence structures

Correlative conjunctions
- not only denote equality but they also make he joining tighter and more emphatic

Subordinating conjunctions
- because as since so although unless if when which while
- express various relationships such as reasons consequences examples exceptions
- structures that are links are embedded as there is a main clause ....
- SC allow writer to show which idea is more and which is less important
- the idea in a main clause is the more important, while the idea in subordinate clause is less important
- SC supplies a time, reason, condition


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PostSubject: tutorial 4   Wed Sep 21, 2011 4:39 pm

Tutorial questions 4
1. Differentiate prepositional verb and phrasal verb.
2. List down ordinal numbers and cardinal numbers
3. Eslfow Internet
4. Refer to page 25. Discuss 1-2 from exercise
5. Discuss one word multiple class
6. There are 3 criteria for word class. State and explain what they are.
7. What do you mean by word class membership.
8. Define open and closed word class.


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PostSubject: Lecture 5   Mon Sep 26, 2011 6:24 am

Modified: Mon 26/9/2011 11:22 AM

Lecture 5
Words : determiners, nouns and pronouns

Know-it-all : noun

Grammatical word class - nouns
Function : generally preceded by determiners ( exception to the rule : proper noun)
Form : generally take suffixes -s 's. Addition of other suffixes changes other word classes into noun ( except proper and uncountable noun) (subtraction addition)
Meaning: refers to people, places and things; naming word (activity , event)

Sub-classes of nouns
- common vs proper
- concrete vs abstract
- countable vs mass

Common vs proper
- Literature or literature?
- The internet or the Internet?
- proper nouns are often defined by their meaning : names of people, places and organizations
- distinguished by using capital letter
- can you add -s to form a plural form
- can you insert determiners before the word? (function); if no, then proper noun, if yes then common noun

Count vs mass nouns
- 5 items or fewer vs 5 items or less
- I don't like fishes vs I don't like fish
- waters of the world vs water of the world
- count nouns are countable whereas mass nouns are uncountable
- money- countable or uncountable?
- more reliable - form. Count nouns take on a plural -s.

Concrete vs abstract nouns
- concrete - material entities; Abstract - qualities or states
- many abstract nouns can be identified by their form (derivational affixes) derived from verbs, adjectives and other nouns
- child+hood
- free+dom
- decide+sion
- blue+ness

-nominalisation is the process of using a verb as a noun- generally an abstract noun. Effect -from process to state
- the noun may be formed by the addition of a suffix : you must behave & your behaviour is bad
- there may be an internal change to the form of the word : I want to choose & give me a choice
- the change in word class may not involve any change in the form of the word:
- we need to change & change is vital

Problems with nouns
- abstract mass nouns
- irregular plural nouns
- shifts : mass to count; proper to common
:- conceive as "a kind/type of", "a unit of or a serving of" then mass -> count. Eg. Cheese -a cheese; aspirin - two aspirins
:- the George that called yesterday

Grammatical word class- pronouns
Function : can replace nouns or noun phrase
Form: change to show number, possession, case etc.
Meaning: refers to people, animals and things without actually naming them
*avoid redundancy

Kinds of pronouns
- personal: 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person
- number: plural and singular
- case: objective, subjective and genitive (possessive)
- gender: masculine and feminine
- reflexive - I did it myself etc.
- relative - who, that, which, whose
- reciprocal - one another, each other

Problem with pronouns
Its and it's
- it's a dog
- this is its bone
Plural reflexive pronouns vs plural reciprocal pronouns:
- the boys blamed themselves
- the boys blamed each other
Inclusive and exclusive meaning
- we are here (kami- exclusive of person spoken to/kita - inclusive of person spoken to)

Grammatical word class - determiners
Function : always occur before nouns
Form: often single morphemes with no addition of suffixes or prefixes
Meaning: can express meaning such as number, quantity, specificness etc.

Articles and determiners
- determiners vs articles
- articles are a class of determiner
- articles - indefinite article a/an definite article the and zero article
- determiners specify a range of reference for nouns (eg definite and indefinite - articles;quantity)
- determiners: articles, demonstrative, ( this, that etc) quantifiers ( some, many, any etc)

-when we use the definite article the we presume that both we and hearer know what is being talked about
- therefore, the definite article often refers to

Types of inflections (nouns) (sound)

Tutorial 5
Formal characteristic of noun
Functional characteristic of noun
What are subclasses of noun
What is the genitive


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